What is a Hybrid Car? How does it work?

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A hybrid car is a vehicle whose drive combines a gasoline engine and an electric motor for fuel efficiency.

Autos.id – The rising price of fuel oil, also known as BBM, “forces” automakers to compete to create fuel-efficient cars. Even so, fuel-efficient cars tend to reduce performance and are not popular with most consumers.

For these reasons, automakers are developing hybrid car technology with the aim of saving fuel without reducing the car’s performance. So the next question is: how does a hybrid car work?

Illustration of the components of a hybrid car.

Illustration of the components of a hybrid car. (Source: Carvaganza)

Some reviews of hybrid cars and their variants

A hybrid car is a type of vehicle that uses two or more power sources to drive the car. Usually the propulsion source of an automobile consists of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. Looking further, there are currently different variants of hybrid cars, namely series, parallel and plug-ins.

1. Hybrid series

In a series hybrid car, the electric motor is the main source of energy to drive the car. The petrol engine only works to produce electricity to drive the electric motor.

2. Parallel hybrids

Also, in a parallel hybrid vehicle, the electric motor and gasoline engine work together to deliver power to the car’s wheels. A parallel hybrid car takes advantage of both power sources – a petrol engine and an electric motor powered by a battery – to reduce fuel consumption. The petrol engine supplies the majority of the power to the car, while the electric motor provides additional power when needed, such as for acceleration or overtaking.

3. Hybrid plug-ins

So, plug-in hybrid cars allow the electric motor to be charged from an external power source, such as a wall outlet. This allows the car to store electrical energy for a longer time.

Read also: Comparison of fuel consumption in the 7 most efficient cars

The working principle of a hybrid car.

The working principle of a hybrid car. (Source: Engineer)

How hybrid cars work

It was previously said that a hybrid car combines two or more resources to propel the vehicle. The most common propulsion system consists of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor, powered by a battery pack and transmission system.

1. Turn on the machine

When you start a hybrid car, the way it works is as follows: When the car is started and the engine starts to warm up, if the battery needs to be recharged, the generator will convert the energy produced by the petrol engine into energy electricity to charge the battery.

2. Low speed

When a hybrid car is moving at low speed, the way it works is as follows: An electric motor provides power to drive the car at low speed, with electricity drawn from the battery.

Also, when the car accelerates, the petrol engine will work to provide extra power. In some hybrid cars, the petrol engine is sometimes not used when the car is traveling at low speed and all the propulsion of the car comes from the electric motor. This system allows for greater fuel efficiency.

3. Cruising speed

When a hybrid car is cruising, it works as follows. At speeds of around 60 to 80 kilometers per hour, the petrol engine fully takes over the driving force of the car.

If the battery is flat when the car is traveling at cruising speed, the energy produced by the petrol engine will be converted by the generator to charge the battery.

How hybrid cars work.

How hybrid cars work. (Source: Electric Car)

4. Speed ​​when overtaking

When a hybrid car maneuvers to overtake another vehicle, the way it works is as follows. To achieve high acceleration, the power of the petrol engine and the electric motor uses the battery simultaneously, according to the driver’s needs.

5. Car braking

When a hybrid car applies braking, the way it works is as follows. In hybrid cars, braking is called regenerative braking.

When you brake or slow down your car, the car’s kinetic energy, which would normally be wasted on a non-hybrid car, can be used by the electric motor as a generator to produce electricity. This electrical energy is then stored in the car battery. The electrical energy generated through regenerative braking means that hybrid cars rarely require battery recharging via a petrol engine.

6. Car stops while

When a hybrid car stops temporarily, the way it works is as follows. The hybrid system can automatically switch off the petrol engine when the car comes to a standstill, for example when stopped at a traffic light.

Also, when the car is stationary, energy is drawn from the battery for the air conditioning, audio and other electronic equipment. This helps to save fuel consumption and reduce exhaust emissions. When the driver presses the accelerator pedal to continue the journey, the electric motor will revive the petrol engine.

Read also: How much does a battery cost for a hybrid car?

Source: various sources


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